The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948 as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations.
It sets out, for the first time, the fundamental human rights to be universally protected. Human rights are those entitlements without which we cannot live in dignity as human beings, which permit us to develop our full potential, satisfy our fundamental intellectual and physical needs. Though aspects such as national, historical, cultural and religious circumstances must be considered.
It is thus the duty of states; regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, to promote and protect the human rights of all people from severe political, legal and social maltreatment. This is internationally guaranteed, focusing on protecting individuals and groups equally. The international human rights law imposes certain obligations on states to do some things & refrain from doing others.
International law is principally for, by and about states. The states themselves make the rules based on custom and treaties and develop them through declarations, and other similar instruments. NGOs representing civil society contribute to this process by providing opinions, lobbying governments and ensuring that the interests of those affected are made visible and taken into account.